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A Village Level Cluster-Randomized Entomological Evaluation of Combination Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets Containing Pyrethroid Plus PBO Synergist in Southern Mali

Moussa B. M. Cisse, Djibril Sangare, Richard M. Oxborough, Abdourhamane Dicko, Dereje Dengela, Aboubacar Sadou, Jules Mihigo, Kristen George, Laura Norris and Christen Fornadel


November 22, 2017
There is growing concern that malaria vector resistance to pyrethroid insecticides may reduce the effectiveness of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). Combination LLINs are designed to control susceptible and pyrethroid-resistant mosquito populations through a mixture of pyrethroid with piperonyl butoxide (PBO) synergist. A cluster randomized trial with entomology outcome measures was conducted in Mali to determine the added benefit over mono-treated pyrethroid predecessors. Four LLIN treatments; permethrin + PBO, permethrin, deltamethrin + PBO, and deltamethrin, were randomly allocated to four villages each (16 villages total) and distributed to cover every sleeping place. Entomological monitoring of indoor Anopheles resting densities, host preference, vector longevity, and sporozoite rates were monitored every 2 months over 2 years in 2014 and 2015.

Abt's Richard Oxborough and Dereje Dengela are co-authors on this study, which found that found that over the two years of the trial neither deltamethrin + PBO LLINs nor permethrin + PBO LLINs provided a meaningful improvement over deltamethrin or permethrin LLINs, respectively. It is important to recognize that during village selection, bottle bioassays with pre-exposure to PBO resulted in improved mortality but did not restore vector susceptibility; particularly for permethrin the increase in mortality was relatively small. LLINs containing PBO may have a greater impact in areas where mixed function oxidases play a more important role in pyrethroid resistance.

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