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Characterizing the Insecticide Resistance of Anopheles gambiae in Mali

Moussa B. M. Cisse, Chitan Keita, Abdourhamane Dicko, Dereje Dengela, Jane Coleman, Bradford Lucas, Jules Mihigo, Aboubacar Sadou, Allison Belemvire, Kristen George, Christen Fornadel and Raymond Beach


September 1, 2015
The impact of indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticide nets (LLINs), key components of the national malaria control strategy of Mali, is threatened by vector insecticide resistance. The objective of this study was to assess the level of insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae sensu lato populations from Mali against four classes of insecticide recommended for IRS: organochlorines (OCs), pyrethroids (PYs), carbamates (CAs) and organophosphates (OPs). 

Multiple insecticide-resistance mechanisms have evolved in An. coluzziiAn. gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis in Mali. These include at least two target site modifications: kdr, and ace-1 R , as well as elevated metabolic detoxification systems (monooxygenases and esterases). The selection pressure for resistance could have risen from the use of these insecticides in agriculture, as well as in public health. Resistance management strategies, based on routine resistance monitoring to inform insecticide-based malaria vector control in Mali, are recommended.